Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas
Based on the results of two bioenergy research initiatives in Germany, this reference examines the sustainable management of wood biomass in rural areas. The large number of participating organizations and research institutes ensures a balanced and unbiased view on the potentials and risks is presented, taking into account economic, ecological, and social aspects. Most of the results reported are available here for the first time in English and have been collated in central Europe, but are equally applicable to other temperate regions. They highlight best practices for enhancing dendromass potential and productivity, while discussing the implications on rural economies and ecosystems.
List of Contributors XXIII Preface XXXIII Part I Introduction 1 1 Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas: Research Findings from the AgroForNet and BEST Projects of the German ‘Sustainable Land Management’ Funding Programme 3David Butler Manning, Albrecht Bemmann, Christian Ammer, Michael Bredemeier and Norbert Lamersdorf 1.1 The ‘Sustainable Land Management’ Funding Programme 3 1.2 Module B: ‘Innovative System Solutions for Sustainable Land Management’ 5 1.3 Dendromass Production and Rural Development in the Context of Sustainable Land Management 6 1.4 Added Value of this Joint Book Publication 7 References 8 2 Linking the Producers and Consumers ofWoodfuel to Contribute to the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas: An Introduction to AgroForNet 9David Butler Manning and Albrecht Bemmann 2.1 Background and Motivation 9 2.2 Aims and Structure of the Project 10 2.3 Research Results Contributed to this Book 11 References 13 3 Strengthening Bioenergy Regions: An Introduction to BEST 15Christian Ammer,Michael Bredemeier and Norbert Lamersdorf 3.1 Background and Motivation 15 3.2 Aims and Structure of the Project 16 3.3 Research Results Contributed to this Book 17 References 20 Part II Environmental Constraints, Landscape Functions and EcosystemServices 21 4 The Bioenergy Allocation and Scenario Tool (BEAST) to Assess Options for the Siting of Short Rotation Coppice in Agricultural Landscapes: Tool Development and Case Study Results from the Göttingen District 23Gerald Busch and Jan C. Thiele 4.1 Introduction 23 4.2 Study Area and Methods 24 4.3 Results 35 4.4 Discussion and Conclusions 40 References 41 5 The Influence of More Widespread Cultivation of Short Rotation Coppice on the Water Balance: From the Site to the Regional Scale 45Andreas Wahren, Falk Richter, Stefan Julich, Martin Jansen and Karl-Heinz Feger 5.1 Introduction 45 5.2 Evidence from Field Measurements and Results of the Plot-Level Modelling 47 5.3 Regional-Scale Modelling 50 5.4 Conclusions 57 References 59 6 Short Rotation Coppice as Habitat for Vascular Plants 63Charlotte Seifert, Christoph Leuschner and Heike Culmsee 6.1 Introduction 63 6.2 Methods 64 6.3 Results and Discussion 67 6.4 Conclusions 75 References 76 7 Synergies and Conflicts between an Increasingly Widespread Cultivation of Short Rotation Coppice and Nature Conservation at the Landscape Level 79Eckehard-Gunter Wilhelm, Franziska Nych, Peter A. Schmidt and Susanne Winter 7.1 Introduction 79 7.2 Methods 80 7.3 Results 82 7.4 Discussion and Conclusions 90 References 92 8 Nature Conservation Requirements of Short Rotation Coppice Management 97Imke Hennemann-Kreikenbohm, Leena Jennemann, Wolfgang Peters and Eckehard-Gunter Wilhelm 8.1 Siting of Short Rotation Coppice 97 8.2 Measures for the Enhancement of the Nature Conservation Value of Short Rotation Coppice 98 8.3 Conclusions 102 References 102 9 The Effects of Short Rotation Coppice on the Visual Landscape 105Thiemen Boll, Christina von Haaren and Michael Rode 9.1 Introduction 105 9.2 Research Design and Methods 106 9.3 Results 111 9.4 Discussion 115 9.5 Conclusions 118 References 118 Part III Evaluating, Managing and Enhancing the Supply of Dendromass 121 10 Site Conditions, Initial Growth and Nutrient and Litter Cycling of Newly Installed Short Rotation Coppice and Agroforestry Systems 123Linda Hartmann and Norbert Lamersdorf 10.1 Short Rotation Coppice and Agroforestry Systems as Resource-Efficient Cropping Systems 123 10.2 Study Region and Research Site Description 125 10.3 Physical and Chemical Properties of the Soils 127 10.4 Planting Success, Initial Biomass and Litter Production and Nutrient Release 128 10.5 Nitrogen Budget and N Use Efficiency 132 10.6 Discussion and Conclusions 134 References 135 11 Potential Offered by a Willow–Grassland Alley Cropping System as a Biogenic Source of Energy 139Miriam Ehret, Rüdiger Graß and Michael Wachendorf 11.1 Introduction 139 11.2 Materials and Methods 140 11.3 Results 142 11.4 Discussion and Conclusions 144 References 145 12 The Effects of Irrigation on the Growth of Poplars and Willows Cultivated in Short Rotation 147Konrad Lorenz and Jürgen Müller 12.1 Introduction 147 12.2 Materials and Methods 147 12.3 Results 151 12.4 Discussion 157 12.5 Conclusions 158 References 158 13 A Spatially Explicit Approach to the Identification of Sites Suitable for Woody Biomass Systems Based on Site Factors and Field Geometry: A Case Study for the Göttingen District 161Gerald Busch and Christoph Meixner 13.1 Introduction 161 13.2 Methods 161 13.3 Results 166 13.4 Discussion and Conclusions 170 References 171 14 Site-Based Yield Estimation and Biomass Calculation in Short Rotation Coppice Plantations 173Heinz Röhle, Hendrik Horn, Manuela Müller and Katja Skibbe 14.1 Site-Based Yield Estimation and Biomass Calculation in Short Rotation Coppice Plantations 173 14.2 Growth Characteristics of Short Rotation Coppice 173 14.3 Site-Based Yield Estimation for Poplar Short Rotation Coppice 176 14.4 Biomass Calculation in Short Rotation Coppice 179 14.5 Conclusions 184 References 185 15 Photosynthetic Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Two Poplar Varieties Commonly Grown in Short Rotation Coppice Plantations and Implications for Fertiliser Management 187Dejuan Euring and Andrea Polle 15.1 Introduction 187 15.2 Materials and Methods 189 15.3 Results and Discussion 191 15.4 Conclusions 194 References 194 16 Biotic Risk Factors in Short Rotation Coppice in Germany: Current Situation, New Findings and Future Perspectives 199Richard Georgi and Michael Müller 16.1 Introduction 199 16.2 Current Situation in Short Rotation Coppice 199 16.3 New Findings 204 16.4 Future Perspectives 213 References 214 17 An Expert System to Forecast Population Developments of Insects Harmful to Short Rotation Coppice Plantations 217Martin Schubert and Uta Berger 17.1 Introduction 217 17.2 Development of ASPIK 218 17.3 Model Evaluation 223 17.4 Front-End 225 17.5 Outlook and Further Applications of ASPIK 228 References 230 18 Supporting the Use of Woody Energy Crops through Efficient Stand Assessment via Terrestrial Laser Scanning 233Dominik Seidel and Christian Ammer 18.1 Introduction 233 18.2 TLS Measurements in a Short Rotation Coppice 235 18.3 Data Processing and dbh Calculation 236 18.4 Correcting for the Shadowing Effect 238 18.5 Accuracy of Results 238 18.6 Conclusions 239 References 240 19 Measuring Dendromass Quantities in the Open Landscape at Test Locations in Eastern Germany Using Publicly Available Geographic Data 243Christoph Schönbach and Andreas W. Bitter 19.1 Introduction 243 19.2 Materials and Methods 244 19.3 Results and Discussion 251 19.4 Conclusions 254 References 255 20 An Analysis of the Potential to Cultivate Short Rotation Coppice on Deutsche Bahn AG Property in Central Germany Using a GIS-Based Approach 257Robert Barkowski and David Butler Manning 20.1 Introduction 257 20.2 Site Conditions Required for Short Rotation Coppice 258 20.3 Materials and Methods 259 20.4 Results 261 20.5 Discussion and Conclusions 265 References 267 21 Compensation of Nutrient Losses Resulting from the Intensified Use of Woody Biomass Using Bark-Ash Pellets 269Christine Knust, Karoline Schua, Axel Göttlein, Rasmus Ettl, Thomas Wolferstetter and Karl-Heinz Feger 21.1 Background and Aims of the Study 269 21.2 RIA Pellet Production and Properties 271 21.3 Impact of RIA Pellets on Soil Chemical Properties and Tree Nutritional Status 272 21.4 Economic Aspects of RIA Pellet Production 283 21.5 Conclusions 284 References 285 Part IV Socio-Economic and Legal Aspects of Dendromass for Bioenergy 287 22 Supply Chain-Based Business Models for Woodfuel 289Klaus Zimmermann and Jörg Schweinle 22.1 Introduction 289 22.2 Generic Cooperation-Oriented Business Model Types 292 22.3 Practical Implications of Generic Business Model Transaction Types 295 22.4 Bioenergy-Specific Challenges to Supply Chain-Based Business Models 297 22.5 Discussion and Conclusions 299 References 300 23 Socio-Economic Sustainability Criteria for Bioenergy Villages Incorporating Short Rotation Coppice in their Energy Supply 303Florian P. Neubert, Jürgen Pretzsch and Gero Becker 23.1 Introduction 303 23.2 Materials and Methods 305 23.3 Results 307 23.4 Success Criteria for Bioenergy Villages 312 23.5 Conclusions 314 References 315 24 The Economic Assessment of Short Rotation Coppice Plantations and their Profitability Relative to Annual Crops in Sachsen, Germany 317Mathias Kröber, Jürgen Heinrich and Peter Wagner 24.1 Introduction 317 24.2 Methodological Basis of the Income Calculation 318 24.3 Assessment of the Profitability of Short Rotation Coppice 321 24.4 Supplying a Biomass Power Plant withWood from Short Rotation Coppice as an Option to Reduce Price Fluctuation and Sales Risks 328 References 329 25 Decision Criteria and Implementation Strategies for Short Rotation Coppice in Germany from the Perspective of Stakeholders 331Thiemen Boll, Florian P. Neubert, Klaus Zimmermann and Annedore Bergfeld 25.1 Introduction 331 25.2 Methods 331 25.3 Results 332 25.4 Discussion 340 25.5 Conclusions 343 References 344 26 The Agricultural and Energy Policy Framework for Short Rotation Coppice in the EU and Its Implementation in the Member States 347David Butler Manning 26.1 Introduction 347 26.2 EU Legislation Relevant to Short Rotation Coppice 349 26.3 Short Rotation Coppice in National Laws of EU Member States 352 26.4 Policy Implications for the Cultivation of Short Rotation Coppice in Europe 358 26.5 Conclusions 360 References 361 Laws and Regulations 364 27 The Legal Framework for Short Rotation Coppice in Germany in the Context of the ‘Greening’ of the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy 367Kathleen Michalk 27.1 Introduction 367 27.2 Crop Diversification 368 27.3 Maintenance of Permanent Grassland 368 27.4 Land Use Benefitting the Environment 369 27.5 Summary and Outlook 371 References 372 Laws and Regulations 372 European Law 372 National Laws and Regulations 373 28 Opportunities Provided by Formal and Informal Planning to Promote the Cultivation of Dendromass for Energy and the Establishment of Wood-Based Supply Chains in Germany 375Annedore Bergfeld and Kathleen Michalk 28.1 Introduction 375 28.2 Spatial Planning Instruments 376 28.3 Approaches to Governance in the Local Context 385 28.4 Conclusions 387 References 387 Laws and Regulations 389 29 Sustainability Certification of Short Rotation Coppice in Germany 391Heiko Hagemann, Uwe Kies and Andreas Schulte 29.1 Introduction 391 29.2 Workflow and Methods 395 29.3 Certification Procedure 398 29.4 Discussion and Conclusions 400 References 401 Part V Applications 403 30 Strategies for the Development of Woodfuel-Based Service Systems and Supply Chains to Promote Rural Development 405Marco Schneider, Denie Gerold, Dirk Landgraf, Susann Skalda and Christoph Schurr 30.1 Introduction 405 30.2 Woodfuel-Based Supply Chains 405 30.3 Service Systems 411 30.4 Conclusions 416 References 417 31 Advisory Services and Public Awareness of Woody Biomass Production: A Regional Example of How to Provide Information and Guide Implementation 419Inga Mölder, Michael Kralemann and Doreen Fragel 31.1 Introduction 419 31.2 Institutional Advisory Services for Woody Biomass in the German Federal State Niedersachsen 420 31.3 Production and Use of Woody Biomass and the Demand for Information by Different Parties 422 31.4 Recommendations for Future Projects 430 References 431 Further Reading 431 32 A Decision Support System to Link Stakeholder Perception with Regional Renewable Energy Goals for Woody Biomass 433Jan C. Thiele and Gerald Busch 32.1 Introduction 433 32.2 Decision Support Tool Concept 434 32.3 Implementation 441 32.4 Discussion and Conclusions 442 References 443 33 Drying and Preparation of Wood Chips from Short Rotation Coppice 447Joachim Brummack, Matthias Umbach, KayWeichelt and Anja Seifert 33.1 The Necessity for Wood Chip Preparation 447 33.2 Introduction to the Self-Powered Drying Technology 449 33.3 Field Trials of the Self-Powered Drying Technology 451 33.4 Conclusions 466 References 467 34 The Bark toWood Ratio of the Poplar Variety Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra Grown in Short Rotation Coppice and the Calorific Properties of the Resultant Woodfuel 469Johannes Lindenberg, David Butler Manning and Hartmut Schmidt 34.1 Introduction 469 34.2 Materials and Methods 470 34.3 Results 471 34.4 Discussion 476 34.5 Conclusions 479 References 480 35 Converting Wood from Short Rotation Coppice and Low-Value Beech Wood into Thermoplastic Composites 483Kim C. Krause, Marcus Müller, Holger Militz and Andreas Krause 35.1 Introduction 483 35.2 Test Materials and Processing ofWood-Plastic Composites 484 35.3 Results and Discussion 487 35.4 Conclusions 493 References 494 36 Particleboards from Newly Exploited Wood Sources as a Starting Point for Cascade Utilisation 497Franziska Friese, Markus Euring and Alireza Kharazipour 36.1 Introduction 497 36.2 Materials and Methods 499 36.3 Results and Discussion 500 36.4 Conclusions 504 References 504 Part VI Conclusion 507 37 The Implementation of Scientific Research Findings in Policy Making: Challenges and Contradictions Highlighted by the Example of Short Rotation Coppice 509Albrecht Bemmann and Jörg Schweinle 37.1 Introduction 509 37.2 Scientific Findings and Political Action 509 37.3 Land Use in Germany 511 37.4 German Agricultural and Forest Policy Framework 512 37.5 Cultivation of Short Rotation Coppice on Agricultural Land in Germany 513 37.6 Reasons for the Lack of Consideration of Scientific Research Findings in Agricultural Policy 519 37.7 Conclusions 521 References 521 Part VII Appendices 527 Appendix 529 Index 531
Albrecht Bemmann heads the department of Forestry and Forest Products of Eastern Europe at Dresden Technical University in Tharandt (Germany). He obtained his academic degrees in forestry at Dresden and St. Petersburg (Russia). David Butler-Manning studied forestry at Dublin (Ireland) and Freiburg (Germany). He is currently the project coordinator for AgroForNet, a federal research initiative for the sustainable use of dendromass to generate bioenergy. Christian Ammer is the head of the section Silviculture and Forest Ecology of the Temperate Zones at Gottingen University (Germany). His main interests are in the fields of regeneration ecology, the relationship between competition and growth in mixed stands, and the effects of resource availability and ontogeny on biomass partitioning of trees. Michael Bredemeier studied forestry at the universities of Munich, Gottingen (Germany), and Corvallis (USA). In his current position he is professor, research scientist and coordinator at the Forest Ecosystems Research Centre of Gottingen University. Norbert Lamersdorf is the deputy head of the department of Soil Science of Temperate and Boreal Ecosystems at Gottingen University (Germany). During the past 25 years, he has taken part in a wide range of international research projects on forest ecosystems, including EU-NITREX, EXMAN, BACPOLES, NOVALIS and RATING-SRC.
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