The fundamentals of public administration, from the world's leading practitioners Handbook of Public Administration is the classic, comprehensive guide to the field, featuring original writings from the world's foremost public administration thought leaders and practitioners. Intended to help both public administration students and practitioners navigate administrative challenges, overcome obstacles, and improve effectiveness, this guide provides a complete overview of the entire field. The information is organized into seven parts representing key domains of knowledge and practice that are essential for effective public administration. These reflect changes in the state of modern public administration, the factors that influence policies and programs, the mechanics of how government works, and the tools that help administrators get things done. Readers will find insightful discussions on the challenges of contemporary governance and the ethics of public administration, as well as practical guidance on the everyday operations that bring effective policies and programs to life. Students and experienced practitioners alike will appreciate the well-rounded approach to issues public administrators face every day. The book is complete enough to act as a text, but organized logically for quick reference for specific problems or situations. Readers will: Understand the challenges posed by the changing context of public administration Explore how relationships and decisions influence public policies and programs Learn the critical skills and tools public administrators must master to be effective Explore the ethics and liabilities of public administration, and what it means to take part The role of public administration is evolving, and the changing nature of the field will impact the way policies and programs are designed and implemented. This book fully explores current and upcoming changes domestically and internationally against the backdrop of public administration fundamentals. For the student or professional seeking a deeper understanding of the public administrator's role, Handbook of Public Administration is a clear, comprehensive resource.
Foreword xvii Paul A. Volcker Preface xxi James L. Perry and Robert K. Christensen The Editors xxvii The Contributors xxxi Acknowledgments xlvii PART ONE: GOVERNING FOR COLLECTIVE ACTION 1 1 Governing in an Age of Transformation 5 Donald F. Kettl The Changing Environment 6 Transformation 11 From the Administrative State to Stateless Administration 19 Summary 21 2 The Changing Character of the American Intergovernmental System 23 Laurence J. O’Toole Jr. Knowledge about Effective Practice 25 Implications 35 Summary 36 3 Governance in an Era of Partnerships 38 Barbara C. Crosby, Melissa M. Stone, and John M. Bryson Clarifying Terms 40 The Environment and Its Effects on Collaborations 42 Environmental Effects on a Collaboration’s Governance Processes and Structures 47 Implications 51 Summary 53 4 Governing in a Global Context 55 Jonathan G. S. Koppell Organizational Responses to Globalization 56 Public Administration in the Age of Globalization 63 Implications of Transnational Organization Design for Public Administration and Management 68 Summary 69 PART TWO: BUILDING INFRASTRUCTURES FOR ACCOUNTABILITY 73 5 Understanding How Public Law Reinforces Administrative Responsibility 77 Phillip J. Cooper Contemporary Challenges and Classic Issues 78 Classic Conceptions and Contemporary Governance 81 Public Law Responsibility in Different Forms in Today’s Context 83 Law’s Meaning at Two Critically Important Levels: Effective Practice and Legitimacy 89 Summary 95 6 Advancing Good Government through Fighting Corruption 97 Milena I. Neshkova and Allan Rosenbaum Definition, Forms, and Consequences of Corruption 99 Theories of Corruption 101 Empirical Evidence on Corruption 107 Strategies for Reducing Corruption 111 Summary 118 7 Using Transparency to Reinforce Responsibility and Responsiveness 120 Gregory A. Porumbescu and Tobin Im Knowledge about Effective Practice 121 Research Findings and Evidence about Effective Practice 124 Judgments about Effective Practice Grounded in Administrative Experience 130 Implications 134 Summary 135 8 Using Public Participation to Enhance Citizen Voice and Promote Accountability 137 Tina Nabatchi, Jack Alexander Becker, and Matt Leighninger Understanding Accountability 138 Understanding Public Participation 140 Summary 150 PART THREE: IMPLEMENTING POLICY USING TOOLS OF COLLECTIVE ACTION 153 9 Developing Effective Relations with Legislatures 157 Anne M. Khademian and Fatima Sparger Sharif The Context of Legislative Liaison Work 159 Structural and Procedural Elements of Managing Legislative Relations 163 Strategic and Tactical Elements of Managing Legislative Initiatives: No Surprises 170 Summary 179 10 Designing Effective Programs 180 Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee, and Jeremy Rayner Components of Public Policy and Effective Program Design 181 Policy Programs and Policy Design: A Short History 184 Principles for Designing Programs: Policy-Program Linkages (I) 187 Principles for Designing Programs: Program-Measure Linkages (II) 191 Summary 195 11 Using Grants to Achieve Public Purposes 197 Sean Nicholson-Crotty Scope and Mechanisms of the Grant-in-Aid System 198 The Politics of Grant Distribution 201 Managing Federal Grants-in-Aid 204 Summary 212 12 Contracting in Pursuit of Public Purposes 215 Zachary S. Huitink, David M. Van Slyke, and Trevor L. Brown Fundamentals 217 Outlook 231 Conclusion 233 Summary 234 13 Coproducing Public Services with Service Users, Communities, and the Third Sector 235 Tony Bovaird and Elke Loeffler What We Know about Effective Practice in Coproduction 238 Implications 247 Summary 249 14 Advancing Public Good through Entrepreneurship 251 Wolfgang Bielefeld Knowledge about Effective Practice 252 Research Findings 255 Implications 268 Summary 269 PART FOUR: MANAGING FOR PUBLIC PERFORMANCE 271 15 Leading Public Organizations Strategically 275 Richard M. Walker, Chan Su Jung, and Gong-Rok Kim Knowledge about Effective Strategy Content Practices 277 Research Findings 280 Implications 288 Summary 291 16 Managing Effective Collaborations 293 Michael McGuire and Chris Silvia Collaborative Public Management 295 Managing Awareness 298 Managing Boundaries 300 Managing Constraints 302 Managing Deliberations 305 Managing External Constituencies 307 Summary 309 17 Tracking the Quality of Services 312 Harry P. Hatry The Brief History and Limitations of Service Quality Measurement 313 Need for Multiple Types of Performance Indicators 314 Sources of Data and Data Collection Procedures 316 Improving the Usefulness of Performance Measurement Systems 320 Uses for Service Quality Information 328 Problems in Performance Measurement 329 Role of Ad Hoc Program Evaluations 330 Summary 331 18 Evaluating the Performance of Public Programs 333 Kathryn E. Newcomer Context for Evaluation of Government Performance 335 Evaluation Practice in the Twentieth-First Century 339 Using Evaluation to Improve Performance 347 Summary 351 19 Motivating Employees Using Public Service 353 Wouter Vandenabeele and Nina Mari Van Loon Theories and Evidence about Public Service Motivation 354 Research Findings and Evidence 358 Implications and Application: Harnessing the Power of Public Service Motivation 363 Summary 365 20 Realizing the Promise of Diversity 366 David W. Pitts and Sarah E. Towne Defining and Understanding Organizational Diversity 367 Frameworks for Understanding Organizational Diversity and Work Outcomes 369 Strategies for Managing Organizational Diversity 373 Evolving Research on Diversity and Inclusion 376 Future Directions for Research and Practice 379 Summary 381 21 Understanding and Overcoming Resistance to Organizational Change 382 Sergio Fernandez Resistance to Change 383 Sources of Resistance to Change 386 Overcoming Resistance to Change 392 Summary 396 PART FIVE: DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEMS 399 22 Performance Budgeting 403 Alfred Tat-Kei Ho Performance Budgeting Practices around the World 404 Institutional and Organizational Constraints on Performance Budgeting Practices 407 Implications for Performance Budgeting Design and Practices 411 Summary 414 23 Designing and Administering Revenue Systems 416 Yilin Hou Government Revenues 417 Reliable Revenue Systems 418 Patterns and Trends of Revenue Systems 419 Evaluation Criteria of Revenue Systems 419 Recent Research and Empirical Evidence about the Criteria 423 Revenue System Administration 427 Improving Current Systems 429 Summary 434 24 Managing E-Government 436 M. Jae Moon and Eric W. Welch Advances in Theories and E-Government Studies 437 Advances in E-Government Practice 443 Moving toward E-Governance for Open, Collaborative, and Integrative Government 450 Critical Success Factors for the Management of E-Government 453 Summary 455 25 Designing Social Media Strategies and Policies 456 Ines Mergel Distinguishing Types of Social Media Tools 459 Current Social Media Practices in the Public Sector 461 Designing a Social Media Strategy and Policy 462 Managerial Challenges for Implementing Social Media in the Public Sector 467 Summary 468 26 Compensating Public Sector Employees 469 Jared J. Llorens The Unique Context of Public Sector Compensation 470 The Case of the US Federal Government 472 Challenges for Practice and Research 481 Practical Guidance for Public Managers and Policymakers 482 Summary 484 PART SIX: SHARPENING THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATOR’S SKILL SET 487 27 Enacting Collective Leadership in a Shared-Power World 489 Sonia M. Ospina and Erica Gabrielle Foldy Collective Leadership and Democratic Governance: What We Know 490 Enacting Collective Leadership: What Research Tells Us 495 Enacting Collective Leadership inside Organizations 495 Enacting Collective Leadership in Complex, Shared-Power Environments 497 Enacting Collective Leadership in Large Collaborative Networks 499 Implications: Convergences and Cornerstones of Collective Leadership 502 Summary 506 28 Negotiating for the Public Good 508 Lisa Blomgren Amsler What to Negotiate: Problems and Context 509 When to Negotiate and When Not To 509 Why Negotiate: Empirical Evidence on Practice 510 How to Negotiate: Tools and Skills to Prepare for and Initiate Negotiation 511 Principled or Interest-Based Negotiation and Positional or Hard Bargaining 519 How Not to Negotiate and How to Recognize Hard Bargaining 524 Summary 526 29 Becoming and Being an Effective Collaborator 528 Rosemary O’Leary Knowledge about Effective Practice 529 Common Themes in the Literature 530 Implications for Applying This Knowledge to Public Administration Practice 541 Summary 545 30 Communicating Effectively 546 James L. Garnett Applying Knowledge about Effective Communication Practice 547 Implications and Lessons from Hard Knocks Experience 559 Summary 562 31 Developing Intrapersonal Skills 564 Maria P. Aristigueta and Robert B. Denhardt Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Skills 565 Developing Intrapersonal Skills 567 Practical Advice for Developing Intrapersonal Skills 573 Summary 577 PART SEVEN: PROFESSIONALIZING PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE 579 32 Embracing Ethical Principles for Public Action 583 Brian N. Williams Reexamining the Historical Meaning of Public Service 585 How Best to Guard the Guardians? 588 Emerging Opportunities to Embrace Ethical Principles in Public Action: A View from Below 591 Out of Darkness and into the Light: Implications for Consistent Ethical Actions 594 Conclusion 596 Summary 597 33 Understanding the Obligations of Codes of Ethics 598 Liza Ireni-Saban Codes of Ethics as Markers of Public Administration Professional Identity 600 Measuring the Effectiveness of Codes of Ethics in Public Administration 605 Assessing the Effective Implementation of Codes of Ethics in Public Administration 607 Comparative Analysis of Codes of Ethics Implementation Efforts 608 Summary 614 34 Understanding Your Liability as a Public Administrator 616 Stephanie P. Newbold Knowledge about Effective Practice 620 Implications 632 Summary 633 35 Effective Governance, Effective Administrators 636 James L. Perry and Robert K. Christensen What Distinguishes Effective Governance? 637 What Makes an Effective Public Administrator? 643 Public Administration as a Profession 648 References 650 Index 747
James L. Perry, PhD is Distinguished Professor and Chancellor's Professor of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, and World Class University Distinguished Professor at Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea. He is also Adjunct Professor of Philanthropic Studies and Political Science at Indiana University. He currently serves as Editor-in-Chief of Public Administration Review. Robert Christensen, PhD, JD, MPA, is an assistant professor in the Department of Public Administration and Policy, School of Public and International Affairs, at the University of Georgia, specializing in public and nonprofit management. His work appears in such journals as the Journal of Public Administration Review and Theory, Public Administration Review, Nonprofit Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Administration & Society and several law reviews.
PRAISE FOR HANDBOOK OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION "Public administration in today's era of governance faces big challenges, including leadership competency, accountability, evidence-based policy delivery, and public trust. The third edition of the Handbook of Public Administration provides much-needed coverage of the theory and practice to help address these contemporary concerns. It is a must-read for anyone involved in public administration at the local, national, and global levels." —Dr. Soonhee Kim, professor, Public Management, KDI School of Public Policy and Management, Republic of Korea "The third edition of this handbook will become a classic. Perry and Christensen rightly assume that 'public administration' is not static but instead a dynamic verb, which they conjugate actively as in governing, building, developing, sharpening, embracing, becoming, enacting, advancing, tracking, and professionalizing. By doing this, academic and practitioner activism become two sides of the same public sector coin." —Prof. Dr. Geert Bouckaert, professor, Faculty of Social Sciences, KU Leuven Instituut voor de Overheid - Public Governance Institute, Belgium; and president, International Institute of Administrative Sciences (IIAS) "I benefited enormously from the first edition of this book as a student: it offered the best overview of a complex field. Almost twenty years later things have grown considerably more complex, reflected by a mix of new forms of governance, greater skepticism toward the state, and new technologies. The new Handbook is up to the task of helping both the student and scholar understand this world – indeed, it reclaims its status as the best overview of the field." —Dr. Donald P. Moynihan, professor, Public Affairs, Robert M. La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin-Madison; and president-elect, Public Management Research Association (PMRA) "This is a book that every public administration student should read. With an elite group of contributors, it offers a comprehensive, advanced, balanced, and state-of-the-art coverage on how to become competent administrators and build effective public enterprises in achieving public purposes in the 21st century. A book full of treasures!" —Dr. Kaifeng Yang, professor, Askew School of Public Administration and Policy, Florida State University; and International Adjunct Professor, Renmin University of China "From matters of governing and building infrastructures for accountability to leading, managing, and professionalizing the practice of public administration, this terrific book will more than satisfy its readers from both the world of practice as well as academe." —Dr. Walter D. Broadnax, distinguished professor, Public Administration and International Affairs, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University "Edited by distinguished scholars, this Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of major research topics with up-to-date information about theory and evidence. It is an indispensable guide to the scope and practice of public administration, and it is essential reading for all of those interested in how public organizations work." —Dr. Lotte Bøgh Andersen, professor, Department of Political Science and Government, Aarhus University, Danish Institute of Governmental Research "The new edition of the Handbook of Public Administration will serve as an essential source for public administration courses and as a key starting-point for new research in the field." —Dr. Steve Kelman, Weatherhead Professor of Public Management, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; and editor, International Public Management Journal
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