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Steps toward a Philosophy of Engineering


Steps toward a Philosophy of Engineering

Historico-Philosophical and Critical Essays

von: Carl Mitcham

38,99 €

Verlag: Rowman & Littlefield International
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 06.12.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781786611284
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 466

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Beschreibungen

<span>The rise of classic Euro-American philosophy of technology in the 1950s originally emphasized the importance of technologies as material entities and their mediating influence within human experience. Recent decades, however, have witnessed a subtle shift toward reflection on the activity from which these distinctly modern artifacts emerge and through which they are engaged and managed, that is, on engineering. What is engineering? What is the meaning of engineering? How is engineering related to other aspects of human existence? Such basic questions readily engage all major branches of philosophy --- ontology, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics --- although not always to the same degree. The historico-philosophical and critical reflections collected here record a series of halting steps to think through engineering and the engineered way of life that we all increasingly live in what has been called the Anthropocene. The aim is not to promote an ideology for engineering but to stimulate deeper reflection among engineers and non-engineers alike about some basic challenges of our engineered and engineering lifeworld.</span>
<span>This book takes steps to develop a philosophy of engineering not to promote an ideology for engineering but to stimulate critical reflection among engineers and non-engineers alike about our engineering lifeworld.</span>
<span>Preface</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Acknowledgments</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>Fragments in Search of an Introduction:</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Remarks on Engineering as a Theme in Philosophy</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Emergence</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Dual Contexts: West and East</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Engineering Studies</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>American Initiatives</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Engineering in Words</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Philosophy and Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Engineering Is Everywhere</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Aspirations</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>Part One</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>1. Science, Technology, Engineering, and the Military</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Observations from History</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Historico-Philosophical Background</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>After World War II in the United States</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Military Embeds with Philosophy of Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Conclusion</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Addendum: Re-Engineering Warfare</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>2. Ethics into Design</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>On the Existence of Design</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>On the Social Dimensions of Modern Design</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>On the Ethics of Designing</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Two Versions of an Ethics in Design</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Notes toward an Inner Ethics of Design</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Notes</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>3. The Importance of Philosophy to Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>1. Self-Defense and Philosophy</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>2. Self-Interest and Philosophy</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>3. Excursus: Three Questions</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>4. Engineering and Ethics</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>5. Beyond Applied Ethics: Self-Knowledge and Philosophy</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Notes</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>4. From </span>
<span>Dasein</span>
<span> to Design:</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>The Problematics of Turning Making into Thinking </span>
<br>
<br>
<span>(with J. Britt Holbrook)</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>The Etymology of “Design”</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Technological Design History</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Technological Design as the Turning of Making into Thinking</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>The Problematics of Technological Design</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>A Duty </span>
<span>Plus Respicere</span>
<span> and Its Discontents</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>The Metaphysics of Technological Design</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Authenticity in Technological Design</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>5. Professional Idealism among Scientists and Engineers:</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>A Neglected Tradition in STS Studies</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>1. FAS, the </span>
<span>Bulletin</span>
<span>, Pugwash, and UCS</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>The Federation of American Scientists</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>The Pugwash Movement</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>The Union of Concerned Scientists</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>2. Committee for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Implications</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>6. Can Engineering Be Philosophical?</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>1. Oppositions</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>2. Obligations</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>3. Options</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Conclusion</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Philosophical Engineering: Five Theses</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Addendum: Chat with Epictetus</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>7. Convivial Software:</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>An End-User Perspective on Free and Open Source Software</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>1. Technological Invention in a Social Context</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>2. The Engineering Ideal</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>3. The Convivial Technology Ideal</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Conclusion and Implications</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>8. Comparing Approaches to the Philosophy of Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>(with Robert Mackey) </span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>1. Introduction</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>2. Six Basic Types</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>3. Toward a Linguistic Philosophy of Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>4. Conclusion</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>Part Two</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>9. A Spectrum of Ideals in Engineering Ethics, Simplified</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>1. Dialectics of Ethics and Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>First Thesis: Obedience to Authority and Company Loyalty</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>The Principle of Loyal Obedience</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Second Thesis: Technocratic Efficiency</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>The Principle of Efficiency</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Third Thesis: Public Safety, Health, and Welfare</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>In the ECPD-ABET-AAES</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>In the NSPE</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>In the IEEE</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Public Safety, Health, and Welfare as Paramount</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Environmentalism and Sustainability</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>A Participation Principle</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>2. Elaborating: Selective North American Cases and Issues</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Jakobsen, Payne, and the ASCE (1930s)</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Hydrolevel Case (1960s)</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) Case (1970s)</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Challenger</span>
<span> Disaster (1980s)</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Whistle Blowing as a Duty to Public Disclosure</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Concluding Non-Dialectic Postscript</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>3. Toward a Soft Dialectical Synthesis</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>A Duty </span>
<span>Plus Respicere </span>
<span>To Take More into Account</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Practical Guidelines for Exercising a Duty </span>
<span>Plus Respicere</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Notes</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>10. The Concept of Sustainability:</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Origins and Ambivalences</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>1. The Historical and Philosophical Background of Sustainability</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>2. Immediate Origins of the Concept of Sustainable Development</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>3. Sustainable Development and Its Near Neighbors</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>4. Critiques of Sustainability</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Conclusion</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Addenda: Economics, Philosophy, Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Notes</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>11. Engineering Ethics Education in the American Context:</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Retrospect and Prospect</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>1. A Brief History of Key Ideas in Engineering Ethics</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>2. Engineering Ethics: Some Quantitative Observations</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>3. Ethics into Engineering Education</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>4. Contemporary Possibilities: A Policy Turn?</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Coda: Post-Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>12. Notes on Engineering Ethics in Global Perspective</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>(with Gary Downey and Juan Lucena)</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Japan: Engineering Profession as Household</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Engineering Ethics as Institutional Protection in Hong Kong</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>France: Engineers and Progress</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Germany: Engineering as </span>
<span>Bildung</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Engineering Ethics as Social Reform in Sweden</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Engineering Ethics to Resist Corruption in the Dominican Republic</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Engineering Ethics as Alternative Development in Chile</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Conclusion: How Globalization Takes Hold</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Addendum: A Further Note</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>13. Humanitarian Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>(with David Muñoz)</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>1. Shifting Contexts and Constraints</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>2. Humanitarianism in History</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Humanitarianism versus Humanism and Human Rights</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Humanitarian Universalism</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Anticipations of the Humanitarian Movement </span>
<br>
<br>
<span>3. Five Phases of Modern Humanitarianism</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Phase One (1800s): Rise of the Humanitarian Movement Proper</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Phase Two (early 1900s): Humanitarianism beyond the Battlefield</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Phase Three (1950s-1960s): Humanitarianism as FreeWorld Ideology</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Phase Four (1970s-1990s): Alternative Humanitarianisms </span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Phase Five (2000s-present): Humanitarianism Globalized and Questioned</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>The Humanitarian Charter</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>4. Toward Humanitarian Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>The Fred Cuny Story</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Other Precursors and Influences</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Maurice Albertson and the U.S. Peace Corps</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Médecins sans Frontiers and Engineers without Borders</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Humanitarian Engineering: Core Features</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>5. Challenges</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Practical Challenges</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Theoretical Challenges</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>6. Conclusion: Humanizing Technology</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>14. The Philosophical Inadequacy of Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>1. Engineering Defined</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>2. Historical Emergence</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>3. The Problem</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>4. Conclusion</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Addendum: The Sociological Inadequacy of Engineering:</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Response to David Goldberg</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>15. The True Grand Challenge for Engineering: Self-Knowledge</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>An Axial Age</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Two Cultures </span>
<span>Recidivus</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Why Humanities?</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Re-envisioning engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Addendum: Simondon’s Dream</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>16. From Engineering Ethics to Politics</span>
<br>
<br>
<span> (with Wang Nan)</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Pre-Philosophical Origins [Tredgold mentioned]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Initial Engineering-Philosophical Discussions: Germany</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Initial Engineering-Philosophical Discussions: United States [Tredgold mentioned]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Globalization</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>From Ethics to Politics</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Conclusion</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Coda: Toward a Political Philosophy of Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>Part Three</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>17. Engineering Policy: Exploratory Reflections</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Conceptual Issue: What Is Policy?</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Background: Classics in Science Policy</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Science, Technology, and Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Normative Arguments: Henry Petroski</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Normative Arguments: Roger Pielke, Jr.</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Conclusion</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>18. Energy Constraints</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>(with Jessica Smith)</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Anthropologies of Energy</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Philosophies of Energy</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Type I versus Type II Energy Ethics</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>19. Can Philosophy Be Engineering?</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>1. Learning from Trying</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>2. Toward an Engineering Epistemology and Metaphysics</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>3. The Question of Engineering</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>4. Questions of Engineering Ethics and Politics</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Conclusion</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>20. In Conclusions</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Where To Begin?</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Continuing</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>And More</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Concluding Unsystematic Postscript: Toward a Techno-Human Condition or Clash of Anthropologies?</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>Addendum: Hemingway and Picasso</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>Appendix</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>On Engineering Use and Convenience</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>[Introduction]</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>1. The Charter of the Institution of Civil Engineers</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>2. Immediate Origins of the Charter</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>3. Thomas Telford and the Institution in Cultural Context</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>4. Telford’s Path: Stone Mason to Engineer</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>5. Use and Convenience, Before and After Tredgold and Telford</span>
<br>
<br>
<span>6. The Distractions of Convenience</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>References</span>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<br>
<span>Index</span>
<span>Carl Mitcham is International Distinguished Professor of Philosophy of Technology at Renmin University of China and Professor Emeritus of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences at the Colorado School of Mines. His publications include Thinking through Technology (1994), and Ethics and Science: An Introduction (2012, with Adam Briggle).</span>

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